Hydroxychloroquine

What are the brand versions of the drug?

Plaquenil.

What does it do?

Malaria, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. It is a less potent and, by some accounts of experts, less toxic version of chloroquine phosphate.

Hydroxychloroquine, sold under the brand name Plaquenil, can treat COVID-19

Who makes it and where is it already tested?

Drug giant Sanofi conducted a study on 24 patients, who & # 39; t described the French government as & # 39; promise & # 39 ;.

French health officials are now planning a larger trial of the drug, which is being used on the NHS.

What have studies shown?

Results from a French study showed that three-quarters of patients treated with the drug were cleared of the virus within six days. None of the placebo group were treated.

How does it work?

It interferes with viral molecules replicating in red blood cells.

Is it testing in the UK?

Hydroxychloroquine is one of the first drugs to be tested in & # 39; a Principle study. It's about high-risk patients in primary care, aged 50 to 64, who have COVID-19 symptoms and a chronic health condition such as heart disease, asthma or cancer.

It is unclear how many patients participate, and the study will last until March next year. That it will take a while before results are clear.

The study is at & # 39; the Nuffield Department of & # 39; a primary care health sciences from the University of Oxford.

Hydroxychloroquine is also thought to be among 1,000 drugs that are being tested at Queens University Belfast.

What are the side effects?

Rash, nausea, diarrhea and headache.

What do the experts think?

Chinese scientists investigating the other form of chloroquine penned a letter to a prestigious journal that said & # 39; less poisonous & # 39; derivative can also help.

In a note to Cell Discovery – owned by Nature publisher, they said it shares similar chemical structures and mechanisms.

The team of experts added: & # 39; It's easy to get rid of the idea that hydroxychloroquine could be a potential candidate to treat infection by SARS-CoV-2. & # 39;

Lopinavir / ritonavir

What are the brand versions of the drug?

Kaletra and Aluvia.

What does it do?

Lopinavir / ritonavir, a brand under the Kaletra and Aluvia brands, is an anti-HIV drug

Lopinavir / ritonavir, a brand under the Kaletra and Aluvia brands, is an anti-HIV drug

It is an anti-HIV drug given to people who live with the virus to prevent it from developing into AIDS. HIV patients were prescribed approximately 1400 times Kaltra as ritonavir in 2018.

Who makes it?

Producer AbbVie, who is based in Illinois, donated free supplies of the drug to authorities in China, the US and Europe for tests.

What have studies shown?

Chinese media reported that the drug was used successfully for patients with the coronavirus, but the reports have not been scientifically proven.

A separate Chinese study published in New England Journal of Medicine found that the lopinavir-ritonavir combination did not improve survival or speed recovery of COVID-19 patients.

However, the authors noted that they are a & # 39; severely ill population & # 39; of patients had enrolled.

In a clinical trial submission, scientists in South Korea said laboratory studies have: & # 39; In vitro (laboratory) studies revealed that lopinavir / ritonavir has antiviral activity (against acute acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) . & # 39;

How does it work?

It is a class of drug called a protease inhibitor that does not essentially stick to an enzyme on a virus that is essential for reproducing the virus.

This blocks the process that the virus would normally use to clone itself and further spread the infection.

Is it testing in the UK?

It is not prescribed on the & # 39; NHS for coronavirus because & # 39; it is not approved – but will be used in & # 39; e recovery test, a mass study conducted by the University of Oxford for COVID-19 patients who are not already in hospital.

The trial began enrolling patients on March 23, with the goal of reaching COVID-19 patients in more than 150 UK hospitals within two weeks.

The drug is also being studied on patients with coronavirus in China and at the University of Nebraska.

What are the side effects?

Known side effects include diarrhea, headaches, stomach upset, drowsiness, dizziness, poor taste in the mouth, and difficulty sleeping.

What do the experts think?

The drugs have been described by experts as & # 39; promise & # 39 ;. But there has been some hesitation about the combination of drugs because of the NEJM study.

Dexamethasone is a steroid drug used to treat allergies and asthma, as well as some types of cancer

Dexamethasone is a steroid drug used to treat allergies and asthma, as well as some types of cancer

Dexamethasone

What are the brand versions of the drug?

Ozurdex and Baycadron.

What does it do?

The steroid drug is used to treat allergies and asthma, as well as some types of cancer.

Who makes it?

Baycadron is manufactured by Wockhardt Usa, Llc, while Ozurdex is manufactured by Allergan, the manufacturer of a commonly used textured breast implant.

What have studies shown?

No studies have yet proven that dexamethasone can treat SARS-CoV-2 – but it has been tested on patients with MERS and SARS, two different coronaviruses.

One retrospective study of critically ill patients with MERS found that nearly half of people who received steroids needed additional treatments, such as assisting with breathing, medicines to raise blood pressure, and some form of dialysis .

Those given steroids were found to take longer to clear the virus from their bodies.

Other studies found that the virus was still present in SARS patients who did not take the drug up to three weeks after infection.

How does it work?

Steroids are often used by doctors to reduce inflammation, which is present in the lungs of patients with the coronavirus.

However, steroids also limit the ability of the immune system to fight viruses and other infections that often occur in patients with life-threatening illness.

Is it testing in the UK?

Dexamethasone is one of & # 39; drugs that is & # 39; used in & # 39; e RECOVERY trial launched by the University of Oxford. It will include patients at more than 130 NHS hospitals in the United Kingdom.

What are the side effects?

It is known to cause an increase in appetite and heartburn, such as muscle waking and sleep loss.

What do the experts think?

In a piece in prestigious medical journal The Lancet, three experts warned: & # 39; There is no unique reason to expect that patients with 2019 nCoV infection will benefit from corticosteroids.

& # 39; And they are more likely to be harmed with such treatment.

& # 39; We conclude that corticosteroid treatment should not be used for the treatment of 2019 nCoV-induced lung injury as a shock outside of a clinical trial. & # 39;

Azithromycin is an antibiotic that has shown signs of promise when used in combination with hydroxychloroquine

Azithromycin is an antibiotic that has shown signs of promise when used in combination with hydroxychloroquine

Azithromycin

What are the brand versions of the drug?

Z-Pack and Zithromax

What does it do?

It is widely used to treat chest infections such as pneumonia, nose and throat infections such as sinus infection (sinusitis), skin infections, Lyme disease, and some sexually transmitted infections.

Azithromycin is used in children, often for the treatment of ear infections as well as chest infections.

Who makes it?

Pfizer

What have studies shown?

Some clinicians have seen limited success in COVID-19 patients when adding it to chloroquine and / or hydroxycholoroquine.

However, there is little concrete evidence of this and it remains a controversial topic.

Last month, big pharma company Pfizer announced positive data for the use of its azithromycin (Zithromax) medication as a coronavirus treatment.

Hydroxychloroquine was given to 20 COVID-19 patients, and six also received azithromycin.

The rate of healing was highest in people who received hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, the study reported.

How does it work?

The drug itself is an antibiotic and therefore ineffective against viral infections.

However, some experts think that combining with the old anti-malaria drugs can improve the prognosis for the sickest patients.

It is unknown how the drug itself can be directly effective against a virus.

Is it testing in the UK?

Azithromycin is one of the four drugs seen in & # 39; e Recovery Trial of & # 39; The University of Oxford.

This program currently has more than 5,000 participants who are not all coronavirus patients currently in UK hospitals.

What are the side effects?

Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea or vomiting, loss of appetite, headaches, dizziness or taste changes.

More serious side effects that are far from rare include breast complaints, healing skin / eye whites, tinnitus or vertigo.

What do the experts think?

Controversial scientists, such as French physician Didier Raoult, claim the drug, when used in conjunction with hydroxychloroquine, can help fight coronavirus.

However, experts believe it is almost universal that the antibiotic in itself will not provide protection against viral infection.

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