Soldiers on the warship Mary Rose in the 16th century wore chain mail made of high quality brass, it is public.

Analysis of & # 39; s findings reveals the weapon direction was made from a surprisingly modern alloy of 73 per cent copper and 27 per cent zinc.

The revelation comes from an international team of researchers who continue to analyze artifacts found on Mary Rose, Henry VIII's favorite ship.

The warship fell during a battle with the French at Solent, just outside the port of Portsmouth, on July 19, 1545.

It fought with about 500 men on board, who used around 60-80 rifles to shoot cannonballs at their enemy fleet.

Preserved for centuries in & # 39; s silt to & # 39; the bottom of the sea, it was raised in 1982 and a quantity of nearly 20,000 items was recovered.

Scroll down for video

Pictured, a clean and preserved link. It is one of the & # 39; three links found on & # 39; e Mary Rose and was found well preserved. X-ray analysis found that it was made of an alloy of 73 percent copper and 27 per cent of zinc

Pictured, the three rings with the appearance of copper. However, they are made of brass. The Mary Rose sank during a battle with the French at Solent, just outside the port of Portsmouth, on July 19, 1545

Pictured, the three rings with the appearance of copper. However, they are made of brass. The Mary Rose sank during a battle with the French at Solent, just outside the port of Portsmouth, on July 19, 1545

The discovery of & # 39; e Tudor came from & # 39; a bow by & # 39; e Mary Rose

The carved Tudor rose – the earliest English figure that did not represent the name of the ship – was more than a decade ago from the bottom of the & # 39; e Solent lifted like a small piece of wood.

The preserved artifact – which still has its wood carving, despite years of erosion, while in the & # 39; seawall of & # 39; e sea is long-suffering – is now officially identified as the flower that was stuck to & # 39; the bow of & # 39; a Mary Rose.

The rose was found in 2003, after a group of divers working on an excavation of the Ministry of Defense worked what would appear to be a highly historical discovery.

The divers searched the area for the bow of the ship and tried to raise the trunk and anchor of the Tudor ship after the government requested to broaden and straighten the canal.

When these pieces were being prepared for lifting, the divers came across a carved wooden artifact, which was about four feet long and shaped like a lollipop.

Not sure what it was, the wood was put up and placed in a water tank in the Mary Rose Museum where it was stored without investigation.

But for more than a decade, it has now been well identified as the emblem of the ship. Last year, the Mary Rose Trust asked the University of Portsmouth to help improve the wood carving to see what was going on.

X-ray analysis led by scientists at the Universities of Warwick and Ghent revealed the structure of three rings found on the ship, each about 1 cm (0.4 inches) in diameter.

It found that the rings were well preserved, despite being underwater for over 400 years.

The small circular brass rings are thought to belong to or are leaks like a chain of weapons, potentially worn by a crew member.

State-of-the-art X-ray technology in Grenoble, called the XMaS tree line gave scientists insight into the & # 39; state of & # 39; e chain connections.

Emeritus Professor Mark Dowsett of & # 39; Department of Physics & # 39; The University of Warwick, who led the study, said: "The results indicate that in Tudor times, brass production was fairly well controlled and techniques such as wire drawing were well developed. Brass was imported from the Ardennes and also produced at Isleworth.

& # 39; I was surprised at the consistent zinc content between the wire couplings and the plate. It is still a modern alloy composition. & # 39;

The highly sensitive process also discovered traces of heavy metals, such as gold and lead on the surface. The origin of these metals is unknown at this time.

Professor Dowsett says: & # 39; The traces of heavy metals are interesting, & # 39; they are not part of & # 39; e alloy but embedded in the surface.

& # 39; One possibility is that they were simply picked up during the production process of tools that were also used to work lead and gold.

& # 39; Lead, mercury and cadmium, however, came in & # 39; e Solent during WW2 by the heavy bombing of Portsmouth Dockyard.

& # 39; Lead and arsenic also came in & # 39; e Solent from rivers such as the Itchen over long historical periods.

& # 39; In a Tudor battle, there can still produce a lot of lead dust by shooting ammunition. Lead balls were used in scatter pistols and pistols, although stone was used in cannon at that time. & # 39;

After the Mary Rose ship was built in 1982, the three artefacts were subjected to various cleaning and preservation treatments to find the best way to prevent corrosion.

One used distilled water, one benzotriazole (BTA) solution and the last method involved cleaning before coating with BTA and silicone oil.

The X-ray scanning method allowed scientists to evaluate which method was most effective in preserving these rare artefacts.

It appeared that all three methods were effective in eliminating corrosion.

In 2018, 1,200 cannonballs were found on Mary Rose displayed on display after treatment.

Pictured, one of the rings that has been preserved and will not corrode, but it was not cleaned. The ring is thought to have been part of a chain mail weapon worn by crew members on Mary Rose - the warship favored by King Henry VIII

Pictured, one of the rings that has been preserved and will not corrode, but it was not cleaned. The ring is thought to have been part of a chain mail weapon worn by crew members on Mary Rose – the warship favored by King Henry VIII

After the Mary Rose ship was built in 1982, the three artifacts analyzed by high-tech X-rays were subjected to various cleaning and preservation treatments to prevent corrosion. One used distilled water, one benzotriazole (BTA) solution and the last method cleaned before coating with BTA and silicone oil

After the Mary Rose ship was built in 1982, the three artifacts analyzed by high-tech X-rays were subjected to various cleaning and preservation treatments to prevent corrosion. One used distilled water, one benzotriazole (BTA) solution and the last method cleaned before coating with BTA and silicone oil

The Mary Rose (artist's impression) fell in battle with the French, killing more than 500 men. Unfortunately, the starboard fuselage remained intact by being embedded in mud on the seabed, which prevented it from being carried by erosion and bacteria

The Mary Rose (artist's impression) fell in battle with the French, killing more than 500 men. Unfortunately, the starboard fuselage remained intact by being embedded in mud on the seabed, which prevented it from being carried by erosion and bacteria

The cannonballs, which are the largest composition of tested iron shot from Tudor England, were kept away from public view in containers with low humidity.

Researchers have conducted a variety of experiments on cannonballs to find ways to remove the acid from the seawater that passed through the artifacts.

If the items were displayed with chlorine still present, it would react with the air and the items would quickly corrode.

Using a carefully crafted liquid to extract the chocolate, it was successfully removed and the life span of all the metal artefacts from Mary Rose extended.

Professor Dowsett says chlorine extraction was very effective.

& # 39; Analysis shows that basic measures to remove chlorine followed by storage at reduced temperature and humidity form an effective strategy, even over 30 years, & # 39; he explains.

Professor Mieke Adriaens, Head of & # 39; Group for Electrochemistry and Surface Analysis at & # 39; Ghent University said: & # 39; It is fascinating to explore ancient technology with specially developed analytical methods that can then be applied to modern materials.

& # 39; It was also a real privilege to have access to these unique artifacts and to play a role in discovering their story. & # 39;

The Mary Rose fell in battle with the French, killing more than 500 men.

Unfortunately, the starboard fuselage remained intact by being embedded in mud on the sea floor, which prevented it from being eroded by peas and bacteria.

The ship was exhibited for 471 years at the Mary Rose Museum after it was destroyed on July 19, 1545 in Solent, just outside the port of Portsmouth.

The ship was exhibited for 471 years at the Mary Rose Museum after it was destroyed on July 19, 1545 in Solent, just outside the port of Portsmouth.

Scientists have previously used powerful X-rays to preserve 1,200 cannon balls (pictured) found on the ship of Henry VIII, the Mary Rose nearly 500 years after it died in Portsmouth

Scientists have previously used powerful X-rays to preserve 1,200 cannonballs (pictured) found on the ship of Henry VIII, the Mary Rose nearly 500 years after it crashed in Portsmouth

Since being raised in 1982 – an event watched by 60 million viewers worldwide – the hull has been kept in a highly protective environment.

For decades, the ship was constantly covered with millions of liters of fine, fresh water at a temperature of less than 5 ° C (41 ° F).

That process, along with a series of wax chemicals, were used to stop the drying of wood and inhibit bacterial activity.

Then, in 1985, the ship was turned upright and titanium props were installed to support the internal structure and work was being done to remove as much sediment as possible.

From 1994, active conservation began by spraying Polyethylene Glycol (Peg), a water-soluble polymer that can penetrate deep into the wood and support the cell walls.

Then, in April 2013, the Peg sprayers were switched off and the hull was kept in a state of controlled controlled drying phase 100 tons of water for the next four to five years.

Once drying was completed, the internal walls around the hull were removed, giving visitors a completely unobstructed view of & # 39; could see a hull – a phase that was seen as the culmination of the project.

Small viewing panels were replaced by floor-to-ceiling windows and a balcony that accessed through a loft, so that the ship could be seen in its very glow.

How & # 39; Mary Rose was rescued from & # 39; the bottom of & # 39; a solent

The ship, the flagship of Henry VIII, was displayed exactly 471 years in the Mary Rose museum after it was destroyed on July 19, 1545 in Solent, just outside the port of Portsmouth.

The Mary Rose fell in battle with the French, killing more than 500 men.

Unfortunately, the starboard fuselage remained intact by being embedded in mud on the sea floor, which prevented it from being eroded by pea and bacteria.

For decades, it was constantly covered with millions of liters of fine, fresh water at a temperature of less than 5 ° C (41 ° F). That process, along with a series of wax chemicals, were used to stop the drying of wood and inhibit bacterial activity.

Then, in 1985, the ship was turned upright and titanium props were installed to support the internal structure and work was being done to remove as much sediment as possible.

From 1994, active conservation began by spraying Polyethylene Glycol (Peg), a water-soluble polymer that can penetrate deep into the wood and support the cell walls.

Then, in April 2013, the Peg sprayers were switched off and the hull was kept in a state of controlled controlled drying phase 100 tons of water for the next four to five years.

Once drying was completed, the internal walls around the hull were removed, giving visitors a completely unbelievable view of & # 39; could see a trunk.

However, the drying process has caused unusual movement, which they now control with special cameras, in order to try to support the ship using scaffolding.

. (tagsToTranslate) dailymail (t) sciencetech

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here