As scientists rush to develop a coronavirus vaccine to get the world back to normal, MailOnline has taken a look at potential candidates.
Vaccine trials were halted on Wednesday, but they may still be ready this year
The Oxford vaccine
When will it be ready ?: Late 2020 / early 2021. Despite the suspension of trials on Wednesday, its developers and No.10 remain confident that the vaccine could be ready for use either at the end of this year or at the beginning of next year. They say a break is common in trials and its development was also halted in July after a suspected side effect was detected.
How it works?: The vaccine works by exposing participants to a weakened cold adenovirus with proteins from the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus attached to its surface. The idea is that exposure allows the immune system to build an immune response, meaning they are protected if they get infected with the real virus.
Has the UK secured doses ?: Yes, 100 million. The United States has obtained an additional 300 million doses, along with several other countries. These will be deployed fairly.
How much does it cost?: AstraZeneca, which is developing the vaccine with the University of Oxford, said it would not benefit from it, but could earn additional royalties if the coronavirus becomes an endemic infection like the flu. The United States spent $ 1.2 billion (£ 930million) to get doses, which means they’re worth $ 4 (£ 3.10) each.
Biontech vaccine could be ready this year
When will it be ready ?: At the end of this year, say the researchers. The vaccine is developed by a German company in partnership with the American pharmacist Pfizer. It is recruiting 30,000 volunteers for its third stage trials.
How it works?: This is an RNA vaccine, a type that has never been approved by regulators before. This will involve injecting a fragment of genetic material from the coronavirus to the participants. This will expose their immune system to a weakened version of the virus and hopefully trigger a response that protects them from the real virus.
Has the UK secured doses ?: Yes, 30 million doses. The United States has also ordered 100 million doses.
Price?: The United States pays $ 2 billion (£ 1.5 billion) for its doses, or about $ 20 (£ 15) per jab.
Moderna, United States
Moderna vaccine entered human trials
When will it be ready ?: Very late this year or next year. The vaccine has recruited 20,000 participants for its third-stage trials. If no potential side effects are observed, it will then be subjected to a second test on more patients next month. This means it could be available by the end of 2020.
How it works?: This is an RNA-based vaccine, similar to the one developed by Biontech.
Has the UK secured doses ?: No. Reports suggest the UK task force failed to secure doses of this vaccine.
How much does it cost?: The United States has ordered 100 million doses at a cost of $ 1.5 billion (£ 1.1 billion). This means that one hit costs $ 32 (£ 25).
Sanofi and GlaxoSmithKline, United Kingdom and France
Sanofi vaccine will not be available this year
When will it be ready ?: First half of 2021. The vaccine entered phase two clinical trials in September, involving 440 adults. It will reach phase three trials in December of this year. There may be setbacks along the way, which means the vaccine might take longer to develop.
How it works?: Participants are injected with DNA encoding coronavirus antigens and a chemical that makes it more potent. It is hoped that this will trigger an immune response.
Has the UK secured doses ?: Yes. Up to $ 60 million will be provided if the vaccine proves effective.
How much does it cost?: Unknown. This information was not provided.
Sputnik V, Russia
Sputnik V is safe, according to the Kremlin, but it has been criticized by scientists
When will it be ready ?: “Imminently”. The Russian Medical Research Institute and the Russian Defense Ministry have developed this vaccine. But he has faced serious criticism both inside and outside Russia, as the results of his human trials have yet to be released. It has also not authorized large human trials, with researchers launching just one involving 40,000 volunteers on August 26. Scientists say the vaccine was rushed without proper controls and could pose a risk to those who take it. The Kremlin began calling for volunteers for the vaccine this week after the production of a first batch, according to the TASS news agency.
How it works?: The Russian vaccine works by carrying a piece of the genetic code for the coronavirus into a participant via another virus. It is hoped that this will produce an immune response.
Has the UK secured doses ?: Countries lining up to try the vaccine include Mexico, which has obtained 32 million doses, and Kazakhstan, which is expected to purchase two million.
How much does it cost?: The price of the vaccine has not yet been revealed.
It is not known when the Sinovac vaccine will be available
When will it be ready ?: Unknown. The vaccine entered end-stage trials in Brazil in July and then in Indonesia in August. The results show that while younger and middle-aged people produce antibodies, older people have a weaker immune response. The vaccine received emergency approval for limited use in July, reports suggest, although it still appears to be in testing. It was previously reported to be second only to the Oxford vaccine, but its full test results have yet to be released. It is one of four vaccine candidates in development in China.
How it works?: This involves injecting patients with an inactivated form of the virus, which triggers their immune system to develop a response.
Has the UK secured doses ?: Unknown. Reports suggest that no dose was obtained.
How much does it cost?: China has yet to release this information.